economy           n.  avoidance of waste (of money, strength, time, resources, etc)

edit              v.  prepare for publication, eg in a book, newspaper, or magazine

element           n.  ~ necessary or characteristic part of sth

eliminate         v.  ~ sb/sth remove (esp sb/sth that is not wanted or needed)

emerge            v. ~  come out or up (from water, etc)

emphasis          n. force or stress given to a word or words when spoken, to make the meaning clear or to show importance

empirical         adj. based on observation or experiment, not on theory

enable            v.  make able to do sth by giving him the necessary authority or means

encounter         v.  meet or find oneself faced by (sth/sb unpleasant, dangerous, difficult, etc)

energy            n.  ability to act or work with strength and eagerness

enforce           v.  ~ sth force people to obey (a law, etc); make sth effective

enhance           v. increase make (sb/sth) look better

enormous          adj. very large; immense

ensure            v.  make sure; guarantee

entity            n.  thing with distinct and real existence

environment       n.  conditions, circumstances, etc affecting people's lives

equate            v. ~ sth consider sth as equal or equivalent (to sth else)

equip             v. ~ sb/sth (with sth) supply sb/sth (with what is needed, for a particular purpose)

equivalent        adj. ~ equal in value, amount, meaning, importance, etc

erode             v. destroy or wear (sth) away gradually

error             n.  thing done wrongly; mistake

establish         v.  set up on a firm or permanent basis

estate            n.  area of land, esp in the country, with one owner

estimate          n.  judgement or calculation of the approximate size, cost, value, etc of sth

ethic             n.  system of moral principles; rules of conduct

ethnic            adj.  of a national, racial or tribal group that has a common cultural tradition

evaluate          v. find out or form an idea of the amount or value of (sb/sth); assess

eventual          adj. happening at last as a result; ultimate

evident           adj. ~ (that...) obvious (to the eye or mind); clear

evolve            v.  (cause to) develop naturally and (usu) gradually

exceed            v. be greater or more numerous than (esp a quantity)

exclude           v.  ~ sb/sth prevent sb from entering somewhere, taking part in sth, etc; keep sb out

exhibit           n.  object or collection of objects displayed for the public, eg in a museum

expand            v.  ~ (into sth) (cause sth to) become greater in size, number or importance

expert            n. ~ person with special knowledge, skill or training in a particular field

explicit          adj.  (of a statement, etc) clearly and fully expressed

exploit           n. brave or adventurous deed or action

export            n.  exporting

expose            v.  uncover or make (sth) visible; display

external          adj.  outside; situated on the outside of sth (esp the body)

extract           v. ~ sth  take or get sth out, usu with effort or by force

facilitate        v. (of an object, a process, etc but not of a person) make (sth) easy or less difficult

factor            n.  fact, circumstance, etc that helps to produce a result

feature           n.  one of the named parts of the face (eg nose, mouth, eyes) which together form its appearance

federal           of or relating to a form of government or a country in which power is divided between one central and several regional government

fee               n.  (usu pl ) amount paid for professional advice or service, eg to private teachers, doctors, etc

file              n. metal tool with a rough surface for cutting, smoothing or shaping hard substances

final             adj.  of the end; coming last

finance           n.  management of money

finite            adj.  having bounds; limited; not infinite

flexible          adj.  that can bend easily without breaking

fluctuate         v. ~  (of a price, number, rate, etc) rise and fall; change irregularly

focus             n. =>Usage at data data.  point at which rays (of light, sound, etc) meet or from which they appear to come

format            n.  shape, size, binding, etc of a book

formula           n. (chemistry ) set of symbols showing the elements that a substance is made of

forthcoming       adj.  about to happen or appear in the near future

foundation        n.  act of founding

founded           [ find: ] to meet with or discover by chance

framework         n.  structure giving shape and support

function          n.  special activity or purpose of a person or thing

fund              n.  sum of money saved or made available for a particular purpose

fundamental       adj.  of or forming the basis or foundation of sth; essential

furthermore       adv. in addition; moreover ;

gender            n.  (in certain languages) classification of a noun or pronoun as masculine or feminine

generate          v. cause to exist or occur; produce

generation        n.  production

globe             n.  small spherical model of the earth showing the continents and usu also countries, rivers, cities, etc

goal              n.  (in football, hockey, etc) pair of posts with a crossbar, between which the ball has to be kicked, hit, etc in order to score

grade             n.  step, stage or degree of rank, quality, etc; level of classification

grant             v.  agree to give or allow (what is asked for)

guarantee         n.  ~ (against sth) promise (usu in writing) that certain conditions agreed to in a transaction will be fulfilled

guideline         a principle put forward to set standards or determine a course of actio

hence             adv.  from this time

hierarchy         n. system with grades of authority or status from the lowest to the highest

highlight         n.  best, most interesting or most exciting part of something

hypothesis        n. idea or suggestion that is based on known facts and is used as a basis for reasoning or further investigation

identical         adj.  the ~ the same

identify          v.  ~ sb/sth as sb/sth show, prove, etc who or what sb/sth is; recognize sb/sth (as being the specified person or thing)

ideology          n. ideas that form the basis of an economic or political theory or that are held by a particular group or person

ignorant          adj.  ~ (of sth)knowing little or nothing; lacking education or information; unaware

illustrate        v.  supply with pictures, diagrams, etc

image             n.  copy of the shape of a person or thing, esp one made in stone or wood; statue

immigrate         v. ~ enter a foreign country in order to live there permanently

impact            n.  hitting of one object against another

implement         n. tool or instrument

implicate         v. ~ sb show that sb is involved in sth, esp a crime

implicit          adj.  ~ implied, but not expressed directly; not explicit

imply             v.  suggest (sth) indirectly rather than state it directly; hint

impose            v.  ~ sth place (a penalty, tax, etc) officially on sb/sth

incentive         n. ~ thing that encourages sb to do sth; stimulus

incidence         n.  ~ of sth extent to which sth happens or has an effect

incline           v.  ~ towards sth lean or slope in the direction of sth

income            n. money received over a certain period, esp as payment for work or as interest on investments

incorporate       v.  ~ sth (in/into sth) make sth part of a whole; include

index             n. list of names or topics referred to in a book, etc, usu arranged at the end in alphabetical order

indicate          v.  ~ sth (to sb) show sth, esp by pointing

individual        adj.  single; separate

induce            v.  persuade or influence (sb) to do sth

inevitable        adj.  that cannot be avoided; that is sure to happen

infer             v. ~ sth (from sth) reach (an opinion) from facts or reasoning; conclude sth

infrastructure    n. subordinate parts, installations, etc that form the basis of a system, an organization or an enterprise (eg of an army)  ,

inherent          adj. ~ existing as a natural or permanent feature or quality of sb/sth

inhibit           v.  ~ sb prevent sb from doing sth that should be natural or easy to do

initial           adj. of or at the beginning; first

initiate          v.  put (a scheme, etc) into operation; cause (sth) to begin

injure            v. hurt (sb); harm

innovate          v. make changes; introduce new things

input             n. ~  action of putting sth in

insert            v. ~ sth put, fit, place sth into sth or between two things

insight           n. ~  (approv ) ability to see into the true nature (of sth); deep understanding

inspect           v.  examine (sth) closely

instance          n.  ~ particular occurrence of sth that happens generally or several times; example; case

institute         n. society or organization for a special (usu social, professional or educational) purpose

instruct          to direct to do something; order

integral          adj.  ~ necessary for completeness

integrate         v. ~ sth (into sth); ~ A and B/~ A with B combine sth in such a way that it becomes fully a part of sth else

integrity         n.  quality of being honest and morally upright

intelligence      n.  power of learning, understanding and reasoning; mental ability

intense           adj.  (of sensations) very great or severe; extreme

interact          v.  ~ act or have an effect on each other

intermediate      adj. ~ situated or coming between two people, things, etc in time, space, degree, etc

internal          adj.  of or on the inside

interpret         v.  explain (sth which is not easily understandable)

interval          n.  ~ time between two events

intervene         v.  (of time) come or be between

intrinsic         adj. belonging naturally; existing within, not coming from outside

invest            v.  ~ (in sth/with sb) use (money) to buy shares, property, etc, in order to earn interest or bring profit

investigate       v.  find out and examine in order to obtain the truth

invoke            v.  use (sth) as a reason for one's action

involve           v.  make necessary as a condition or result; entail

isolate           v.  ~sb/sth put or keep sb/sth entirely apart from other people or things; separate sb/sth ;

issue             n.  outgoing; outflow

item              n.  single article or unit in a list, etc

job               n. the patience of job

journal           n.  newspaper or periodical, esp one that is serious and deals with a specialized subject

justify           v.  show that (sb/sth) is right, reasonable or just

label             n.  piece of paper, cloth, metal, etc on or beside an object and describing its nature, name, owner, destination, etc

labour            n.  physicalor mental work

layer             n.  thickness of material laid over a surface or forming a horizontal division

lecture           n.  ~ (on sth) talk giving information about a subject to an audience or a class, often as part of a teaching programme

legal             adj.  of or based on the law

legislate         v. ~ make laws

levy              v.  ~ sth (on sb) collect (a payment, etc) by authority or force; impose sth

liberal           adj.  tolerant and open-minded; free from prejudice

licence           n.  official document showing that permission has been given to own, use or do sth

likewise          adv.  similarly

link              n.  one ring or loop of a chain

locate            v.  discover the exact position or place of

logic             n.  science of reasoning

maintain          v.  ~ sth cause sth to continue; keep sth in existence at the same level, standard, etc

major             adj.  important; great(er)

manipulate        v.  control or handle with skill

manual            adj. of, done with or controlled by the hands

margin            n.  blank space round the written or printed matter on a page

mature            adj.  fully grown or developed mentally or physically; having achieved one's full potential

maximise          [ maximize: ] vt. to make as high or great as possible; increase to a maximum

mechanism         n.  working parts of a machine, etc

media             n. the media means of mass communication, eg TV, radio, newspapers

mediate           v.  ~ act as a peacemaker or go-between for two or more people, groups, etc who disagree

medical           adj.  of the art of medicine; of curing disease

medium            n. (pl usu media) means by which sth is expressed or communicated

mental            adj.  of, in or to the mind

method            n.  way

migrate           v. ~ (to...)  move from one place to go to live or work in another

military          adj. of or for soldiers or an army; of or for armed forces

minimal           adj. smallest in amount or degree

minimise          [ minimize: ] to reduce to or estimate at the least possible degree or amount

minimum           n.  least or smallest amount, degree, etc possible

ministry          n.  (buildings containing a) government department

minor             adj.  smaller, less serious, less important, etc

mode              n.  ~ (fml ) way or manner in which sth is done

modify            v.  change (sth) slightly, esp to make it less extreme or to improve it

monitor           n.  device used to observe, record or test sth

motive            n. ~ that which causes sb to act in a particular way; reason

mutual            adj.  felt or done by each towards the other

negate            v.  deny or disprove the existence of (sb/sth)

network           n.  complex system of roads, etc crossingeach other

neutral           adj.  not supporting or helping either side in a dispute, contest,war, etc; impartial

nevertheless      adv, conj in spite of this; however; still

nonetheless       adv. nevertheless; however

norm              n.  standard or pattern that is typical (of a group, etc)

normal            adj.  in accordance with what is typical, usual or regular

notion            n.  ~ idea or belief; concept

notwithstandin prep (can also follow the n to which it refers ) without being affected by (sth); in spite of

nuclear           adj.  of a nucleus, esp of an atom

objective         adj.  not influenced by personal feelings or opinions; unbiased; fair

obtain            v.  ~ sth et sth; come to own or possess sth (by buying, borrowing, taking, etc)

obvious           adj. easily seen, recognized or understood; clear

occupy            v.  live in or have possession of (a house, land, etc)

occur             v.  come into being as an event or a process; happen

odd               adj.  strange; unusual; peculiar

offset            v. ~ sth (by sth/doing sth) compensate for sth; balance sth

ongoing           adj. continuing to exist or progress

option            n.  power or freedom of choosing; choice

orient            n. the Orient countries of the (Far) East (eg Japan, China)

outcome           n. effect or result (of an event, circumstances, etc)

output            n.  quantity of goods, etc produced

overall           adj. including everything; total

overlap           v.  partly cover (sth) by extending over its edge

overseas          adj. across the sea; foreign